Assessment of Non-Indigenous Species (NIS) in the Ports of Hamburg, Kiel, Cuxhaven and JadeWeserPort
As part of the new departmental research BMVI Network of Experts, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) started for the first time a comprehensive assessment of non-indigenous Species (NIS) in the Ports of Hamburg, Kiel, Cuxhaven and JadeWeserPort in 2017 and 2018. The monitoring of NIS followed the procedure of the JOINT HELCOM/OSPAR GUIDELINES FOR THE CONTRACTING PARTIES OF OSPAR AND HELCOM ON THE GRANTING OF EXEMPTIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF SHIPS’ BALLAST WATER AND SEDIMENTS, REGULATION A-4. In addition to the port sampling, two artificial habitat collectors „Crab condo“ (Hewitt & McDonald, 2013) and „Oyster crate“ (Fowler et al., 2013) were tested. The first part of the report contains the results of Port of Hamburg and Kiel in 2017. The second report contains survey of Port of Cuxhaven and JadeWeserPort in 2018. Both are available for download:
The aims of the project were the identification of species as indigenous and non-indigenous species (NIS) and the evaluation of the practical implementation of the HELCOM/OSPAR port survey protocol.
Overview: Port of Hamburg
Seven potential harmful, so-called target species were found in the Port of Hamburg: Dikerogammarus villosus, Dreissena bugensis, Dreissena polymorpha, Eriocheir sinensis, Gammarus tigrinus, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria viridis. In the Port of Kiel, three target species were identified: Grandidierella japonica, Hemigrapsus takanoi and Neogobius melanostomus. Taking into account additional monitoring data from e.g. the fish species list of Hamburg (Atlas der Fische und Neunaugen Hamburgs, 2015), 7 non-indigenous fish species are established in the area of Hamburg (including side waters): Lepomis gibbosus, Pseudorasbora parva, Carassius auratus, Neogobius melanostomus, Ameiurus nebulosus, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Umbra pygmaea). In 2015, Thiel et al., 2016, recorded the most northerly occurrence of the bighead goby (Ponticola kessleri).
The Port of Hamburg was surveyed from April to October 2017. Four sampling sites were selected which represent typical environments regarding their abiotic conditions, such as a salinity, and port design.
Most species (127) and NIS (13) were identified at the “Alte Süderelbe” site. Four non-indigenous Crustacean species as well as the hydroid Cordylophora caspia and the bivalve Dreissena polymorpha were found at all four investigated sites.
- Plankton: In the Port of Hamburg, 35 different species were identified. Regarding NIS, only the bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was found in the zooplankton samples (Veliger larvae) in summer 2017.
- Benthos: Thirteen NIS, mostly crustaceans and molluscs were identified: Cordylophora caspia, Chelicorophium robustum, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, Eriocheir sinensis, Gammarus tigrinus, Jaera (Jaera) albifrons agg., Corbicula fluminea, Dreissena bugensis, Dreissena polymorpha, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Potamothrix moldaviensis, Laonome xeprovala sp. nov., and Marenzelleria neglecta. A fresh and brackish water species of Sabellidae (Polychaeta, Annelida) Laonome xeprovala sp. nov. (Bick et al. 2018) was detected for the first time in the Port of Hamburg.
- Fouling: Three more Crustacean NIS species were classified as Chelicorophium curvispinum Dikerogammarus villosus, Obesogammarus crassus. Scratch sample results showed that most indigenous species and NIS were found on the pontoons. On the Settlement plates no additional NIS were found.
- Mobile epifauna (e.g. crustaceans and fish): According to the Port Survey Protocol, two different traps (Gee`s minnow, Chinese crab box) were installed to catch mobile epifauna. Only Gee`s minnow traps caught two NIS, Eriocheir sinensis and Gammarus tigrinus. No non-indigenous fish species were caught in Hamburg.
- Artificial habitat collectors: In three locations the crab condos were lost. In the remaining crab condo no additional NIS were found. Most NIS species were trapped within the oyster crates: Cordylophora caspia, Chelicorophium curvispinum, Chelicorophium robustum, Dikerogammarus villosus, Eriocheir sinensis, Gammarus tigrinus, Corbicula fluminea, Dreissena bugensis, Dreissena polymorpha, and Potamothrix hammoniensis.
Overview: Port of Kiel
The survey of the Port of Kiel was conducted from April to October 2017. Similarly to Hamburg, three sites were chosen in the port area, representing various typical environmental features. Most of the NIS were Crustaceans and Cnidarian. Non-indigenous Molluscs where not found at any of the investigated sites. The Crustaceans Amphibalanus improvisus and Hemigrapsus takanoi as well as the brown algae Fucus edentatus were found at all three investigated port sites.
- Plankton: At all sites, plankton samples were taken. However, with the applied method no NIS were detected at any of the sampling sites.
- Benthos: With the grab sample method seven NIS were identified: Amathia gracilis, Garveia franciscana, Amphibalanus improvisus, Hemigrapsus takanoi, Sinelobus sp. nov., Telmatogeton japonicus, and Marenzelleria viridis.
- Fouling: Different hard substrates were investigated by scratch samples and Rapid Assessment (RA, visual observations). Settlement plates were deployed at all three sites. Ten species were classified as NIS, among them the brown algae Fucus edentatus (found at all sites), the red algae Dasya baillouviana and the cnidarian Pachycordyle navis.
- Mobile epifauna (e.g. crustaceans and fish): No NIS were found within Gee`s minnow or Chinese crab box traps.
- Artificial habitat collectors: Most of the species and all NIS were captured with the oyster crates and/or the crab condos. Many species were found with both kinds of traps. However, most of the fish species (Neogobius melanostomus) were captured only within the oyster crates.
Overview: Port of Cuxhaven
In the Port of Cuxhaven, port survey was conducted at the three harbour sites “Seebaederbruecke”, “Alte Liebe” and “Staubenhoeft Yachthaven”. Overall, 246 different species were found. In total of 24 NIS were identified, 19 of which belonged to the kingdom of Animalia. The remaining five NIS belong to the kingdom of Chromista.
- Plankton: At each of three sites, phytoplankton and zooplankton were collected both in spring and summer. Five species were classified as non-indigenous species in phytoplankton: Biddulphia sinensis, Coscinodicus wailesii, Ethmodiscus punctiger, Plagiolemna distortum, Mediopyxis helysia. In zooplankton three species are described as non-indigenous species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus, Mya arenaria and Marenzelleria viridis.
- Benthos: The sediments considered mainly of muddy sediments at times mixed with fine sand. One Crustacean and three polychaete taxa are classified as NIS: Amphibalanus improvisus, Marenzelleria sp., Streblospio benedicti and Tharyx killariensis.
- Fouling: Different hard substrates were investigated by scratch samples and Rapid Assessment (RA, visual observations). Settlement plates were deployed at all three sites. In total of 13 species are classified as NIS: Amathia gracilis agg., Amphibalanus improvisus, Austrominius modestus, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Hemigrapsus takanoi, Melita nitida, Palaemon macrodactylus, Sinelobus sp. nov., Synidotea laticauda, Telmatogeton japonicus, Magellana gigas, Stylochoidea indet., Alitta virens.
- Mobile epifauna: Amphibalanus improvisus and Palaemon macrodactylus were found within Gee`s minnow and/or Chinese crab box traps.
- Artificial habitat collectors: At all three harbour sites, the oyster crates and the crab condos were installed to catch mobile epifauna. At the “Alte Liebe” site, the oyster crate could not be recovered due to sediment coverage. Most species were trapped within the crab condo. Pisces, Platyhelminthes and Polychaeta were only found within oyster crates and crab condos. A total of seven non-indigenous species were found within the traps: Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Hemigrapsus takanoi, Melita nitida, Polaemon macrodactylus, Synidotea laticauda, Stylochoidea indet. and Molgula manhattensis.
In JadeWeserPort three harbour sites “Pontoon Northeast”, “Pontoon Southeast” and “Pontoon West” were investigated. Overall, 272 distinct species were found, of which 21 animal species were identified as non-indigenous species (mainly Crustacea) as well as five species from the kingdom Chromista and two Plantae species.
- Plankton: At each of the three harbour sites, phytoplankton and zooplankton were collected both in spring and summer. Four of phytoplankton species were classified as non-indigenous species: Biddulphia sinensis, Coscinodiscus wailesii, Plagiolemma distortum and Mediopyxis helysia. In Zooplankton two non-indigenous species Pseudodiaptomus marinus and Marenzelleria viridis were found at the sampling sites.
- Benthos: Overall, 9 samples were collected at all sites via grab sampling. The sediments at the sites consisted of muddy sediments with organic coating partly. Four NIS were identified as NIS: Tricelaria inopinata, Amphibalanus improvisus, Jassa marmorata and Telmatogeton japonicus.
- Fouling: At the sites various hard substrates were investigated via scratch samples and Rapid Assessment. Also three settlement plate sets were deployed. 16 species are classified as NIS among them the brown algae Sargassum muticum and red algae Antithamnionella spirographidis. More Species are: Amathia gacilis, Bugulina stolonifera, Tricellaria inopinata, Amphibalanus improvisus, Austrominius modestus, Caprella mutica, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Hemigrapsus takanoi, Jassa marmorata, Telmatogeton japonicus, Crepidula fornicate, Magallana gigas, Polydora websteri, Botryllus schlosseri, Styela clava, Botryllus schlosseri and Melanothammus harveyi.
- Mobile epifauna: Austrominius modestus, Hemigrapsus takanoi, Jassa marmorata and Palaemon macrodactylus were found within Gee`s minnow and/or Chinese crab box traps.
- Artificial habitat collectors: At all three harbour sites, the oyster crates and the crab condos were installed to catch mobile epifauna. Most of the non-indigenous species were captured with crab condos. These are: Bugulina stolonifera, Austrominius modestus, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Hemigrapsus takanoi, Palaemon macrodactylus, Mnemiopsis leidyi and Stylochoidea indet.
In nearly all cases of sampling the species accumulation curves did not become asymptotic. This indicates that additional samples could have resulted in the detection of additional species (A. Gittenberger et al, 2014).
Based on the results of the studies, the following considerations are necessary for a successful risk assessment as basis for the granting of exemptions according to regulation A-4 BWMC:
- Going beyond the minimum requirements of the Port Survey Protocol, especially with view of plankton and fouling organisms;
- Considering additional local monitoring data (e.g. MSFD);
- Flexible use of additional methods (Oyster Crate) and
- Consultation with stakeholders to optimize the port survey (e.g. identifying the right locations).
- Bick A., Bastrop R., J. Kotta, K. Meißner, M. Meyer, V. Syomin, 2018. Description of a new species of Sabellidae (Polychaeta, Annelida) from fresh and brackish waters in Europe, with some remarks on the branchial crown of Laonome
- Gittenberger A, Rensing M., Niemantsverdriet P., Schrieken N., Stegenga H., 2014. Port of Rotterdam survey and monitoring non-native species conform HELCOM/OSPAR protocol
- HELCOM, OSPAR, 2013. Joint Harmonised Procedure for the Contracting Parties of OSPAR and HELCOM on the Granting of Exemptions Under International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. In: Regulation A-4.
- Thiel R., Thiel R., 2015. Atlas der Fische und Neunaugen Hamburgs.
- Thiel R, Schulze S., Hempel M., Husemann M., 2016. Most northerly record oft he bighead goby Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861) in the Elbe River, Germany