The weekly Maps of SST for the North Sea and Baltic
are constructed on wednesdays. Data received during the past 7 days are used.
The North Sea map is based on both satellite and ship observations. The Baltic
map is based solely on satellite measurements. The North Sea map is animated
since 1995, the Baltic since 1996. Maps of the Monthly Means and Anomalies
are presented dating back to 1968.
Sea ice, next to snow, is the most variable constituent of the Earth´s surface. Small variations in climate forcing are associated with substantial changes in sea ice coverage. Thus sea ice is viewed as a key-indicator for climate change.
All sea ice charts presented here are based on digital sea ice concentrations derived from
SSMR and SMMI satellite data (courtesy of National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder,
CO). The historical evolution since 1978 of the geographical distribution of global sea ice, as well as its seasonal, intraseasonal, and interannual variability, can be explored here easily through an interactive video machine. The actual evolution over the most recent 30 days of global sea ice coverage, and snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere, can be visualized in the same fashion.
Although navigational requirements are accounted for in these products, for general
navigation ice conditions in the Baltic and North Sea, as well as American, Norwegian and
Russian waters are of special interest. Ice information on these regions is available from
BSH's Ice service.
The northward transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean
is very important for the climate conditions in Northern Europe. The amount
as well as the variablity of this transport are poorly known. The determination
of the meridional fluxes (in German: Meridionale Transporte
im Nordatlantik) of heat and freshwater across the line between
the English Channel and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland is a major contribution
of BSH to Climate Research.
The WOCE Global Hydrographic Climatology WGHC was published in September 2004. It provides a consistent and coherent hydrographic gridded full–depth data set on 45 depth levels with a 0.5° spatial resolution. High quality hydrographic observations from the WOCE one–time and repeat hydrographic cruises with ca. 9000 stations for the period 1990 — 1998 are the modern basis.
part of the Hamburg Ocean/CLIVAR-projekt: "The changing North Atlantic Ocean:
mechanisms of circulation changes" the changes in the thermohaline circulation
are quantified on time scales of years to decades. First analyses of the
coherent data set along the
section WOCE/A2 during the Nineties show significant interannual changes
in the climate relevant key parameters of the large-scale circulation in
the North Atlantic such as heat and freshwater transports. With a phase lag
of one year the transport values show an almost linear correlation with changes
in the dominant mode of low-frequent atmospheric variability in the North
Atlantic, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The values for two historic
cruises from 1957 and 1982 confirm this behaviour.
hydrographic data of the Atlantic Ocean will be assembled to produce a coherent
and consistent data set of the thermohaline status for the
This data set will be used to produce a printed and an electronic atlas of
all measured and some derived properties in order to describe the thermohaline
circulation of the Atlantic Ocean which plays an eminent role for the climate
particularly of Northern Europe. The atlas details will follow closely those
used by other groups who work on similar projects for the other oceans, i.e.
the Pacific, Southern and Indian Ocean. Thus, finally there will be a complete
global set of all hydrographic data, including tracers. In addition we will
complement the WOCE hydrographic data
with data of comparable quality for earlier periods, i.e the pre-WOCE period
and earlier to quantify changes in properties and derived properties and
to describe their origins on decadal time scales. As a reference period the
WOCE period 1990-1997 will be uniformly used.
The WOCE Hydrographic Programme Special Analysis
Centre was a joint project between Max-Planck-Instituts für Meteorologie
and BSH. The hydrographic dataset of the
Ocean Circulation Experiments were analyzed for
consistency and gridded using both optimal interpolation and assimilation
into a global LSG (Large Sale Geostrophical) model.