The Kara Sea Project was a joint Project of the Institut für Meereskunde,
Universität Hamburg (IfM)
and the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie
(BSH). The project was funded by the Minister
of Education, Research, Science and Technology
In 1994, a German project was initiated in order to estimate the dangers
which could possibly result from the
waste that had been dumped by the former USSR into the Kara Sea. Therefore,
the transport and the dispersion of radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean was
investigated in order to find out, if this radioactivity could contaminate
not only the Barents Sea itself , but also the Northern Atlantic or even
the North Sea. Modelling groups at BSH and the IfM studied the circulation
and transport in the sea aereas in question by using
computer models These models simulate the dispersion of radioactive
substances out of the Kara Sea and potential pathways from the Arctic Ocean
into the Northern Atlantic in case of a release.
In addition, radionuclide concentrations in sea water and sediments were
measured in these sea aereas, and their
sources were identified. On one hand, the
results were used as primary input data for the models, and on the other
hand as a mean for the verification and the valuation of the modelling results.
In parallel, a sedimentological sub-project was raised at
GEOMAR in Kiel, in order to evaluate the
role of sea ice in large scale distribution of radionuclides.
The results of this project are summarised in "Transportmechanismen radioaktiver
Substanzen im Arktischen Ozean",
des Bundesamtes für Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Nr. 21, 1999,
(in German) including figures (5,2 MB !!)
Results of the hydrodynamic models (animated graphics):
discharge of radionuclides from nuclear dumping sites near the coast of Novaja
Zemlya 185 KB.
of the real discharge of the Sellafield reprocessing plant to the Arctic
Seas 449 KB.
I.H. Harms: Modelling the dispersion of 137Cs and 239Pu released from dumped
waste in the Kara Sea. J. Mar. Systems, Vol. 13, 1-19 (1997).
I.H. Harms, M.J. Karcher: Strahlende Stömung. GEO Heft 10, Okt. 1997.
H. Nies, C. Bahe, D. Dethleff, I.H. Harms, M.J. Karcher, E. Kleine: Transport
and Dispersion of Artificial Radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean, Radioprotection
- Colloques, Vol. 32, C2, 407-416 (1997).
H. Nies, I.H. Harms, M.J. Karcher, D. Dethleff, C. Bahe et al: Anthropogenic
Radioactivity in the Nordic Seas, Dt. hydrogr. Z., Vol. 50, 4, 313-343 (1998).
I. Harms, P.P. Povinec: The outflow of radionuclides from Novaja Zemlya bays,
The Science of the Total Environment, 237/238, 193-201 (1999).
J. Herrmann, H. Nies, I. Goroncy: Plutonium in the Deep Layers of the Norwegian
and Greenland Seas, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 75 (1-4), pp. 237-245
H. Nies, I.H. Harms, M.J. Karcher, D. Dethleff, C. Bahe: Anthropogenic
radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean, The Science of the Total Environment,
Vol. 237/238, 181-191 (1999).