Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Warnemünde
(IOW) (Baltic Sea Research Institute, Warnemünde)
The winter 2000/2001 was characterized by only minor ice coverage
in the southern Baltic Sea and was the fourth mild winter after each other.
The winter belongs to a period of relative mild winters which started
1987/1988. In the northern Baltic Sea the maximum ice coverage was normal.
Because also the summer was warmer than the average the year 2001 was the
eight warmest in northern Germany since 55 years. The strongest positive
anomalies of the air temperature were observed in October making this month
to the warmest October at least for the last 55 years.
Due to the mild winter the surface temperature in January was
2 K above the long-term mean. The minium temperature was observed not
before March which occured only seldom since 1990. The warm summer
resulted in positive water temperature anomalies up to 3 K in
July. From August onwards the surface temperatures were on
The deep water temperatures of the central Baltic Sea were still high
due to the inflows of warm water, especially in 1997. In the eastern Gotland
Basin maximum values of the years before were not reached. In the Landsort
and Karlsö Deep, however, temperatures measured in the 400 m and
100 m level respectively were with 5,24 °C and 4,66 °C
the highest of the last years.
Again, in the year 2001 only low inflow activity across the
sills was detected. Only in October/November a stronger inflow event
occured. Within 16 days around 200 km³ were flowing into the
central Baltic Sea causing a rapid increase of the oxygen content
in the deep water of the Bornholm Basin up to 4,68 ml/L in
December. In January 2002 the effects of this inflow were
registered shortly in the eastern Gotland Basin.
Despite that, the stagnation period which started in 1995 continues
in the central Baltic Sea deep basins. In the eastern Gotland Basin, the
anoxic water covered the layer between 125 m and the bottom whereby
the hydrogen sulphide concentrations in the bottom-near layer were
comparable to the concentrations measured at the end of the long lasting
stagnation period in 1992. This is also valid for the phosphate and
The stagnation period continues also in the western Gotland Basin. In the
Landsort Deep, hydrogen sulphide is present all the year round. In the
Karlsö Deep low oxygen concentrations were found until May followed
by anoxic conditions in the rest of the year. For the first time a
negative annual mean for oxygen was calculated in the 100 m-level. The
thicknesses of the hydrogen sulpide containing layers in November
were 330 m and 20 m in the Landsort and Karlsö Deep, respectively.
Nutrient concentrations in the mixed winter surface layer are used
as indicator for eutrophication. The inorganic nitrogen compounds
are on a similar level since the beginning of the 1990s, no trends can be
observed. For phosphate a decreasing trend was detected in many sea
areas in the 2nd half of the 1990s. This trend was interrupted in the winter
1999/2000. In the winter 2000/2001 phosphate concentrations
were, with the exception of the Bornholm Basin, again on a relative low level.
However, a further decrease cannot be expected. Additionally the higher phosphate
pool in the deep water due to the anoxic conditions has to be taken into
account. This pool can lead under given hydrographic circumstances to an
additional phosphate supply to the surface water.
For the first time, mean concentrations for different natural organic
substances averaged over a longer period of time can be given. The mean
content of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the Baltic Sea is
26,8 µmol/L (surface layer) and 24,6 µmol/L (bottom-near
layer). In the surface layer a pronounced seasonality can be seen. For dissolved
organic carbon (DOC) seasonal variability is comparatively low. The
mean concentrations are 312 µmol/L in the surface layer and
272 µmol/L in the bottom-near layer.